How to Escape Restricted Shell Environments on Linux

The moment arrives when you finally pop a shell on the web server you've been working on, only you find yourself in a strange environment with limited functionality. Restricted shells are often used as an additional line of defense and can be frustrating for an attacker to stumble upon. But with enough patience and persistence, it is possible to escape these restricted environments. What Are Restricted Shells? Restricted shells are simply shells with restricted permissions, features, or commands. They are primarily used to ensure that users can perform the minimum operations necessary for... more