What is cryptography? How algorithms keep information secret and safe

Cryptography definition

Cryptography is the science of keeping information secure by transforming it into form that unintended recipients cannot understand. In cryptography, an original human readable message, referred to as plaintext, is changed by means of an algorithm, or series of mathematical operations, into something that to an uninformed observer would look like gibberish; this gibberish is called ciphertext.

Cryptographic systems require some method for the intended recipient to be able to make use of the encrypted message — usually, though not always, by transforming the ciphertext back into plaintext.

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